Modelling and Simulation of Glass Forming in the Automotive Industries
This paper addresses advances in finite element (FE) models and web-based models for the fabrication of automotive glass. Recent progress in the development of FE models for accurate determination of temperature and residual stress distributions during heating and gravity sag of automotive glass are discussed. Numerical approaches for detailed three-dimensional modelling of the furnace internal components (heating elements, rollers, furnace walls) for simulating glass heating in the furnace are presented. Modelling strategies are described for simulating: 1) the radiative interactions between internal furnace components and the glass, 2) radiative heat transfer within the glass, and 3) structural and stress relaxation in the glass during sagging and pressing processes.
Moe A. KHALEEL, Vladimar N. KOROLEV, Kenneth I. JOHNSON
finite element, radiative heat transfer, viscoelasticity.